To setup Google Cloud for use with Terraform, create a Google Cloud project using the Google Console.

Then, I create a Google Cloud Service Account. After creating the account with the appropriate role, I create the service account key and download and save the private key data in JSON format.

Once you have the service account key, then you can export an environment variable like GOOGLE_CREDENTIALS with the path to the JSON file. See the Google Cloud Provider Terraform documentation for more information.

Finally, you can create and run your terraform commands which will use the service account to create your Google Cloud resources.

WWDC is tomorrow! For the first time in a while, the rumor mill is pretty quiet. However, it has led to even more wishful thinking and speculation.

The general theme and expectation is Apple will focus on reliability. Bug fixes will be prioritized which would be great. Another possible theme may be “Digital Health”, which can mean information about how you use your phone to better notification and Do Not Disturb management. After spending some time with health and meditation apps, I think it would be helpful to have features that make more efficient usage of your device and make you acknowledge that it is your responsibility to monitor and manage your time.

watchOS needs more independence from iOS whether that be apps that can operate more independently (when there’s Wi-Fi, use it instead of the Bluetooth connection) to more capabilities (e.g. able to streaming podcasts) for third party apps. There needs to be some justification for investing energy into watchOS apps considering most developers are abandoning the platform.

It would be wonderful if tvOS gained user profiles and some sort of acknowledgement that it is not meant for just a single user’s preferences. For instance, you can only log into one Game Center profile (even though Game Center might as well not exist itself). More intriguingly, I think it would be useful to detect the presence of multiple people (say some people had their iPhones or Apple Watches near the Apple TV), and then tvOS would give recommendations tailored to those people. It seems far-fetched at this point given Apple’s direction, but it would be interesting conceptually.

macOS stability and feature parity is a sore spot. There are many capabilities that are just not present (e.g. HomeKit, iMessage apps, TV app). If feature parity is not on the table, then slowly breaking apart iTunes must be on Apple’s priority list hopefully.

Perhaps the most important area of focus is Apple’s services. Siri is the poster child of an Apple service needing improvement. The speech recognition and feedback seem to be fine but actually interpreting the commands seems to be difficult with its open ended nature. Compared to Google Assistant and Amazon Echo, Siri might work slightly subpar but the constant embarrassing screenshots of incidents where Siri makes wild interpretations of questions is alarming.

Personally, I would prefer if Apple makes a few acknowledgements in their process more than anything. A public announcement that they will deliver iOS 12 over the course of a few months instead of a 12.0 release with everything in it. Whether intentional or not, iOS 11 just got the last of its announced features a week before WWDC 2018 (Messages in the Cloud and AirPlay 2). It would be even better if all of their services like Siri were continuously publicly improved every week/month/quarter so that customers feel things are getting better constantly at a sustainable pace.

The other major change I would like to see happen is a “service” mentality for every one of their introduced features. Instead of features being tied to an OS, the APIs should be made available on as many platforms as possible with the ability for apps to integrate with the service. iMessage, Photos, HomeKit, Siri, Apple Music and in general iCloud should become independent platforms themselves without needing to build apps to use OS APIs to integrate with them. Building ecosystems for these systems without requiring an iOS device would be a huge change in strategy but if Apple is focusing on service revenue, building great independent services would drive them forward. Instead of catching up to WeChat, Dropbox, Amazon Echo, Spotify, Apple could independently move forward without being tied to iOS.

Let’s Encrypt is a service that offers free TLS (aka SSL) certificates. The certificates are recognized by all modern browsers. The only “disadvantage” of using Let’s Encrypt is that the certificates have to be renewed every few months but the process can be automated.

Depending on your environment, there are various ways to get initially setup with their certificates. You can get specific domain (e.g. www.example.com or staging.example.com) or wildcard (*.example.com) certificates. Visit the Let’s Encrypt website to understand all of your options.

Assuming that you already have a Google Cloud project, have setup Google Cloud provider credentials for Terraform and have bought a domain name, you can use the Let’s Encrypt Docker certbot image to get a wildcard certificate using the following process.

Note the assumption is that this is a new domain name which does not have an existing DNS setup. If you are migrating a domain name, you should read the Google Cloud documentation instead.

Terraform

Resource Code

First, create a new directory and then create a Terraform file like:

provider "google" {
  version = "~> 1.0"
  project = "${var.google_project}"
  region  = "${var.google_region}"
  zone    = "${var.google_zone}"
}

variable "google_project" {
  description = "The Google Cloud project to use"
}

variable "google_region" {
  description = "The Google Cloud region to use"
}

variable "google_zone" {
  description = "The Google Cloud zone to use"
}

variable "domain_name" {
  description = "The domain name to use"
}

resource "google_dns_managed_zone" "example_com" {
  name        = "example-com"
  dns_name    = "${var.domain_name}."
  description = "${var.domain_name} domain"
}

resource "google_project_iam_custom_role" "dns_owner" {
  role_id     = "dns_owner"
  title       = "DNS Owner"
  description = "Allows service account to manage DNS."

  permissions = [
    "dns.changes.create",
    "dns.changes.get",
    "dns.managedZones.list",
    "dns.resourceRecordSets.create",
    "dns.resourceRecordSets.delete",
    "dns.resourceRecordSets.list",
    "dns.resourceRecordSets.update",
  ]
}

resource "google_service_account" "letsencrypt_dns" {
  account_id   = "dns-letsencrypt"
  display_name = "Lets Encrypt DNS Service Account"
}

resource "google_project_iam_member" "project" {
  role   = "projects/${var.google_project}/roles/${google_project_iam_custom_role.dns_owner.role_id}"
  member = "serviceAccount:${google_service_account.letsencrypt_dns.email}"
}

resource "google_service_account_key" "letsencrypt_dns" {
  service_account_id = "${google_service_account.letsencrypt_dns.name}"
  public_key_type    = "TYPE_X509_PEM_FILE"
}

resource "local_file" "letsencrypt_credentials_json" {
  content  = "${google_service_account_key.letsencrypt_dns.private_key}"
  filename = "letsencrypt-credentials.json.base64"
}

The above config sets up the Google Cloud provider with a domain name, project, region, and zone via variables to be set later. It creates a DNS managed zone on Google Cloud. You may want to rename some of the resource names like example_com to your specific setup.

Note that for the dns_name, the value will need a trailing . (so the final value will be like example.com.).

The above config also creates a service account with a custom role which allows the service account to modify DNS records. Once the account is created, it will store the credentials in a local letsencrypt-credentials.json.base64 file.

Variable Config

Create a terraform.tfvars file to fill in the variables with your specific config.

google_project = "project-id"
google_zone    = "us-central1-a"
google_region  = "us-central1"
domain_name    = "example.com"

Plan and Apply

To do the one-time initial Terraform provider setup, run:

terraform init

Then to create a plan for creating the resources:

terraform plan -out=terraform.plan

You may want to inspect the output of terraform plan to understand what resources are being created.

Run the following when ready to create the resources:

terraform apply terraform.plan

Setup DNS Nameserver

You will need to have your domain registar use the Google Cloud DNS nameservers. After applying the Terraform config, you can go to the Google Cloud Console under Networks services > Cloud DNS. Find your domain name and get the DNS nameservers. Go to your domain registar and use all of the DNS nameservers (under the NS record like ns-cloud-b1.googledomains.com.).

You may have to wait a few minutes to a day for the nameserver change to propagate.

Let’s Encrypt Certbot in Docker

Running Let’s Encrypt Certbot in Docker, you can finally get and renew a wildcard certificate.

Make 2 directories for Let’s Encrypt config and logs.

mkdir -p certs/config
mkdir -p certs/logs

Base64 decode the service account credentials into a file, and move the file into the config directory.

cat letsencrypt-credentials.json.base64 | base64 -D > letsencrypt-credentials.json
mv letsencrypt-credentials.json certs/config/google-cloud-service-account-credentials.json

Then run the following replacing the <absolute path> with the actual absolute paths:

docker run -it --rm --name certbot -v "<absolute path to>/certs/config:/etc/letsencrypt" -v "<absolute path to>/certs/logs:/var/lib/letsencrypt" certbot/dns-google certonly --dns-google-credentials /etc/letsencrypt/google-cloud-service-account-credentials.json --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory

After running the command and answering a few questions, the certbot will use the service account to create a DNS entry to verify domain ownership. Then it will issue a wildcard certificate for your domain. The certificate files and credentials will be stored in your certs/config directory.

You can then re-run the certbot when it is time to renew the certificates. Be sure to keep (and backup) a copy of the certs/* directories to re-use them later.